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Syllabus for Std-XII Geography :

Organisation : Maharashtra State Board of Secondary & Higher Secondary Education
Announcement : Std-XII Geography HSC Syllabus

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Geography :
Introduction :
The 10+2 stage in the educational pattern is an important link in the chain of curricular work, where in it is insisted that the students should switch off for the branch of knowledge best suited for them, on the basis of the foundations laid in the first 10 years of schooling, devoted to general education.

Accordingly, it would be necessary at this stage to broaden and deepen the students basic knowledge in geography, so that it may develop a keen and profound interest in the subject that is so useful in their everyday life as well as in their areas of specialization. Moreover, geography being a subject of interdisciplinary nature, it helps in the study of natural sciences and social sciences.

The course is based on the guidelines provided in NCF2005 and SCF 2010. Core elements such as protection of environment and inculcation of scientific temper as mentioned in NPE and POA have also been reflected in the course content of geography. The theoretical study of geography is complemented by practical work have been made a part of curriculum for 10+2 stage. For 10+2, the geography course has complements of theory and practical work. The course is designed in such a way that students will be acquiring knowledge of the world as a whole with the new technologies the world is shrinking and new patterns of regional cooperations are emerging. At the same time world as a whole is facing problems like, global warming and climate changes. Different regions in the world having varied physiographic and social personalities are expected to respond to these global problems in different ways. Hence, it is necessary that the students understand the strengths and weaknesses of each region to face these problems.

Though regions have different personalities, none remains in isolation and they complement each other in different ways. With the study of world as an entity and understanding the problems, will promote students to accept the concept of world as a home of man and to realize the need for conserving their home.

Field visits and practical work will be useful in developing necessary geographical skills.

Objective :
The course in Geography will help learners to
1. understand the terms, key concepts and basic principles of Geography.
2. recognize and understand the processes and patterns of the spatial arrangement of natural as well as human features and phenomena on the earth’s surface.
3. understand and analyse the interrelationship between physical and human environment and their impact.
4. know about the scarcity of minerals and power resources and to understand the importance of its conservation and use of non-conventional power resources.
5. understand the causes of environmental pollution and its impact on life on the earth.
6. apply geographical knowledge and method of enquiry to new situations or problems at different levels : local, regional, national and global.
7. understand major types of human activities as influenced by geographical factors.

1. develop geographical skills relating to collection, processing and analysis of data or information including grapics and use of computers wherever possible and preparation of a report.
2. understand the effects of natural hazards and prepare them to help the affected persons.

Std. XI
World Geography – Physical
Unit 1: Physiography
1.1 Mountains
1.2 Plateaus
1.3 Plains
Unit 2: Movements of the earth
2.1 Rocks
2.2 Earthquakes
2.2 Volcanoes
Unit 3: Climate
3.1 Temperature
3.2 Pressure
3.3 Precipitation
Unit 4: Drainage System & Water resources
4.1 Main rivers
4.2 Lakes
4.3 Availability of water
4.4 Usage
4.5 Water scarcity
Unit 5: Oceans & Marine eco system
5.1 Structure of ocean floor
5.2 Archipelago group of Island
5.3 Marine eco system
5.4 Ocean resources
Unit 6: Natural Vegetation
6.1 Distribution
6.2 Importance of forests
6.3 Deforestation
Unit 7: Biomes and Biodiversity
7.1 Types of Biomes
7.2 Biodiversity
Unit 8 : Disaster
8.1 Natural disaster
8.2 Manmade disaster

Unit 1: Projection
1.1 Types of projection
Unit 2: Methods of representing relief
features & Slopes on a map
Unit 3: Topographical Map
3.1 Map reading ( 1:50,000)
Unit 4 : Remote Sensing – Aerial Photographs
Unit 5: Weather Charts
5.1 Reading
5.2 Weather instruments
Unit 6: Field study

Std. XII
Geography of World – Human

Unit 1 : Population
1.1 Growth, density, distribution
1.2 Sex ratio Literacy
1.3 Race, religion and Language

Unit 2 : Migration
2.1 Migration

Unit 3 : Agriculture
3.1 Types of agriculture
3.2 Crop distribution

Unit 4 : Minerals and energy resources
4.1 Distribution

Unit 5 : Industries
5.1 Agro-based
5.2 Mineral based
5.3 Other industries
5.4 Distribution

Unit 6 : Trade
6.1 International trade
6.2 International trade organisation

Unit 7 : Transportation and Communications
7.1 Types of Transportation
7.2 Modes of Communications

Unit 8 : Economic developments
8.1 Global situation
8.2 Human development

Geography : Practical – Part II :
Unit 1 : Map Scale Types

Unit 2 : Graphs
2.1 Line graph
2.2 Bar graph
2.3 Two dimensional diagrams
2.4 Three dimensional diagrams

Unit 3 : Thematic Maps
3.1 Distributional map
Unit 4 : Surveying
4.1 Chain and Tape survey
4.2 Plane Table

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