Organisation : Maharashtra State Board of Secondary & Higher Secondary Education
Announcement : Std-XII Chemistry HSC Syllabus
Std. XII (Theory)
Unit 1: Solid State
Classification of solids based on different forces; molecular, ionic, covalent and metallic solids, amorphous and crystalline solids (elementary idea), unit cell in two dimensional and three dimensional lattices, calculation of density of unit cell, packing in solids, voids, number of atoms per unit cell in a cubic unit cell, point defects, electrical and magnetic properties, Band theory of metals, conductors and semiconductors and insulators and n and p type semiconductors.
Unit 2 : Solutions and colligative properties
Types of solutions, expression of concentration of solids in liquids, solubility of gases in liquids, solid solutions, colligative properties –relative lowering of vapor pressure,Raoult’s law elevation of boiling point, depression of freezing point, osmotic pressure, determination of molecular masses using colligative properties, abnormal molecular mass.Van’t Hoff factor and calculations involving it.
Unit 3 :Chemical thermodynamics and energetic
Concepts of system, types of systems, surroundings. Work, heat, energy, extensive and intensive properties, state functions. First law of thermodynamics – internal energy and enthalpy, Hess’ law of constant heat summation, enthalpy of bond dissociation, combustion, formation, atomization, sublimation. Phase transition, ionization and solution and dilution Introduction of entropy as a state function, free energy change for spontaneous and non spontaneous processes, and equilibrium constant. Second and third law of thermodynamics
Unit 4: Electrochemistry
Redox reactions, conductance in electrolytic solutions, specific and molar conductivity, variations of conductivity with concentration, Kohlrausch’s Law, electrolysis and laws of electrolysis (elementary idea), dry cell –electrolytic and galvanic cells; lead accumulator, EMF of a cell, standard electrode potential, Nernst equation and its application to chemical cells, fuel cells; corrosion. Relation between Gibb’s energy change and emf of a cell.
Unit 5: Chemical kinetics
Rate of reaction (average and instantaneous), factors affecting rate of reaction; concentration, temperature, catalyst; order and molecularity of a reaction; rate law and specific rate constant, integrated rate equations and half life (only for zero and first order reactions); concept of collision theory (elementary idea, no mathematical treatment). Activation energy, Arrhenius equation.
Unit 6 :General principles and processes of isolation of elements
Principles and methods of extraction – concentration, oxidation, reduction electrolytic method and refining; occurrence and principle of extraction of aluminium, copper, zinc and iron
Unit 7: p-Block elements
Group 15 elements:
General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, oxidation states, trends in physical and chemical properties; nitrogen – preparation, properties and uses; compounds of nitrogen; preparation and properties of ammonia and nitric acid, oxides of nitrogen (structure only); Phoshorous-allotropic forms; compounds of phosphorous; preparation and properties of phosphine, halides (PCl3,PCl5) and oxoacids (elementary idea only).
Group 16 elements:
General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties; dioxygen; preparation, properties and uses; Classification of oxides, simple oxides; Ozone. Sulphur – allotropic forms; compounds of sulphur; preparation, properties and uses of sulphur dioxide; sulphurc acid; industrial process of manufacture, properties and uses, oxoacids of sulphur (structures only).
Group 17 elements:
General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties; compounds of halogens; preparation, properties and uses of chlorine and hydrochloric acid, interhalogen compounds, oxoacids of halogens (structure only).
Group 18 elements:
General introduction, electronic configuration. Occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties, uses.
Unit 8 : d and f Block Elements
d-Block Elements –
General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence and characteristics of transition metals, general trends in properties of the first row transition metals – metallic character, ionization enthalpy, oxidation states, ionic radii, colour, catalytic property, magnetic properties, interstitial compounds, alloy formation preparation and properties of K2Cr2O7 and KMnO4.
Lanthanoids – Electronic configuration, oxidation states, chemical reactivity and lanthanoid contraction and its consequences. Actinoids – Electronic configuration, oxidation states. Comparison with lanthanoids.
Unit 9: Coordination compounds
Coordination compounds – Introduction, ligands, coordination number, colour, magnetic properties and shapes, IUPAC nomenclature of mononuclear coordination compounds, bonding; Werner’s theory, VBT, CFT. isomerism, (structural and stereo) importance of coordination compounds (in qualitative analysis, extraction of metals and biological systems).
Unit 10 : Halogen derivatives of alkanes (and arenes)
Nomenclature, nature of C-X bond, physical and chemical properties, mechanism of substitution reactions. Stability of carbocations,R-S and d-l configuration
Nature of C-X bond, substitution reactions (directive influence of halogen for monosubstituted compounds only) stability of carbocations, R-S and d-l configurations. Uses and environmental effects of – dichloromethane, thrichloromethane, tetrachloromethane, iodoform, freons, DDT.
Unit 11 : Alcohols, phenols and ethers
Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties (of primary alcohols only); identification of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols; mechanism of dehydration, uses of methanol and ethanol.
Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, acidic nature of phenol, electrophillic substitution reactions, uses of phenols.
Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, uses.
Unit 12 : Aldehydes, ketones and carboxylic acids
Aldehydes and ketones :
Nomenclature, nature of carbonyl group, methods of preparation. Physical and chemical properties, mechanism of nucleophilic addition, reactivity of alpha hydrogen in aldehydes; uses.
Carboxylic acids :
Nomenclature, acidic nature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties; uses.
Unit 13: Organic compounds containing nitrogen
Nitro compounds-General methods of preparation and chemical reactions
Nomenclature, classification, structure, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, uses, identification of primary, secondary and tertiary amines. Cyanides and isocyanides:
Will be mentioned at relevant places in context.
Preparation, chemical reactions and importance in synthetic organic chemistry.
Unit 14: Biomolecules
Classification (aldoses and ketoses), monosaccahrides d-l configuration (glucose and fructose), oligosaccharides (sucrose, lactose, maltose), polysaccharides (starch, cellulose, glycogen), importance.
Elementary idea of a -amino acids, peptide, linkage, polypeptides, proteins; structure of amines-primary, secondary, tertiary structure and quaternary structures (qualitative idea only), denaturation of proteins; enzymes.
Lipids and hormones (elementary idea) excluding structure, their classification and functions.
Vitamins: Classification and functions.
Nucleic acids: DNA and RNA
Unit 15: Polymers
Classification – natural and synthetic, methods of polymerization (addition and condensation), copolymerization. Some important polymers; natural and synthetic like polythene, nylon, polyesters, bakelite, and rubber. Biodegradable and non biodegradable polymers.
Unit 16: Chemistry in everyday life :
1. Chemicals in medicines : analgesics, tranquilizers, antiseptics, disinfectants, antimicrobials, antifertility drugs, antibiotics, antacids, antihistamines elementary idea of antioxidants
2. Chemicals in food : Preservatives, artificial sweetening agents.
3. Cleansing agents : Soaps and detergents, cleansing action.