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Syllabus for Std-XII Biology :

Organisation : Maharashtra State Board of Secondary & Higher Secondary Education
Announcement : Std-XII Biology HSC Syllabus

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Biology :
Std. XI and XII
Section I – BOTANY
Unit 1: Genetics and Evolution :
Chapter 1 – Genetic Basis of Inheritance:
Mendelian inheritance. Deviations from Mendelian ratio (gene interactionincomplete dominance, co-dominance, multiple alleles and Inheritance of blood groups), Pleiotropy, Elementary idea of polygenic inheritance.

Chapter 2 – Gene: its nature, expression and regulation:
Modern concept of gene in brief-cistron, muton and recon. DNA as genetic material, structure of DNA as given by Watson and Crick’s model, DNA Packaging, semi conservative replication of eukaryotic DNA.

RNA: General structure, types and functions.
Protein Synthesis; central dogma, Transcription; Translation-Genetic Code, Gene Expression and Gene Regulation (The Lac operon as a typical model of gene regulation).

Unit 2: Biotechnology and its application:
Chapter 3 – Biotechnology: Process and Application :
Genetic engineering (Recombinant DNA technology):
Transposons, Plasmids, Bacteriophages; Producing Restriction Fragments, Preparing and cloning a DNA Library, Gene Amplification (PCR).
Application of Biotechnology in Agriculture – BT crops
Biosafety Issues (Biopiracy and patents)

Unit 3: Biology and Human Welfare :
Chapter 4 – Enhancement in Food Production
Plant Breeding Tissue Culture: Concept of Cellular Totipotency,
Requirements of Tissue Culture (in brief), Callus Culture, Suspension Culture. Single Cell Protein. Biofortification.

Chapter 5 – Microbes in Human Welfare:
Microbes in Household food processing.
Microbes in Industrial Production.
Microbes in Sewage Treatment.
Microbes in Biogas (energy) Production.
Microbes as Biocontrol Agents.
Microbes as Biofertilizers.

Unit 4: Plant Physiology :
Chapter 6 – Photosynthesis
Autotrophic nutrition Site of Photosynthesis Photosynthetic Pigments and their role. Light-Dependent Reactions (Cyclic and non-cyclic photophosphorylation) Light-Independent Reactions (C3 and C4 Pathways)
Chemiosmotic hypothesis, Photorespiration, Factors affecting Photosynthesis. Law of limiting factors.

Chapter 7 – Respiration
ATP as currency of Energy Mechanism of Aerobic (Glycolysis, TCA Cycle and Electron Transport System) and Anaerobic Respiration. Fermentation Exchange of gases Amphibolic pathway. Respiratory quotient of Nutrients. Significance of Respiration.

Unit 5: Reproduction in Organisms :
Chapter 8 – Reproduction in Plants
Modes of Reproduction (Asexual and Sexual).
Asexual reproduction; uniparental modesvegetative propagation, micropropagation
Sexual Reproduction: structure of flower Development of male gametophyte, Structure of anatropous ovule.
Development of female Gametophyte.
Pollination: Types and Agencies. Outbreeding devices; pollen-pistil interaction.
Double Fertilization: Process and Significance.
Post-fertilization changes (development of endosperm and embryo, development of seed and formation of fruit)
Special modes-apomixis, parthenocarpy, polyembryony. Significance of seed and fruit formation.

Unit 6: Ecology and Environment
Chapter 9: Organisms and Environment -I : Habitat and Niche
Ecosystems: Patterns, components,
productivity and decomposition, energy flow; pyramids of number, biomass, energy; nutrient cycling (carbon and phosphorous).
Ecological succession, Ecological servicescarbon fixation, pollination, oxygen release. Environmental issues: agrochemicals and their effects, solid waste management, Green house effect and global warming, ozone depletion, deforestation, case studies (any two).

Section II – ZOOLOGY
Unit 1: Genetics and Evolution :
Chapter 10 – Origin and the Evolution of Life :
Origin of Life: Early Earth, Spontaneous, assembly of organic compounds,
Evolution: Darwin’s contribution, Modern Synthetic Theory of evolution, Biological
Evidences, Mechanism of evolution;
Gene flow and genetic drift;Hardy- Weinberg principle; Adaptive radiation.
Origin and Evolution of Human being.

Chapter 11 – Chromosomal Basis of
The Chromosomal Theory.
Linkage and Crossing Over.
Sex-linked Inheritance (Haemophilia and colour blindness).
Sex Determination in Human being, birds, honey bee.Mendelian disorders in humans-Thalassemia.
Chromosomal disorders in human: Down’s syndrome, Turner’s syndrome and Klinfelter’s syndrome.

Unit 2: Biotechnology and its application:
Chapter 12- Genetic Engineering and Genomics
DNA Finger Printing.
Genomics and Human Genome Project.
Biotechnological Applications in Health:
Human insulin and vaccine production, Gene Therapy. Transgenic animals.

Unit 3: Biology and Human Welfare
Chapter 13- Human Health and Diseases Concepts of Immunology: Immunity Types, Vaccines, Structure of Antibody, Antigen-Antibody Complex, Antigens on blood cells. Pathogens and Parasites (Amoebiasis, Malaria, Filariasis, Ascariasis, Typhoid, Pneumonia, Common cold and ring worm).
Adolescence, drug and alcohol abuse.
Cancer and AIDS.

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