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Syllabus for Class-XII Physics : Directorate of Education

Organisation : Directorate of Education Delhi
Announcement : Class – XII Syllabus Physics

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Class XII
Senior Secondary stage of school education is a stage of transition from general education to discipline-based focus on curriculum.

Related / Similar Syllabus : DSSSB Delhi PRT Syllabus 2020

The present updated syllabus keeps in view the rigour and depth of disciplinary approach as well as the comprehension level of learners. Due care has also been taken that the syllabus is not heavy and is at the same time, comparable to the international standards.

Salient features of the syllabus include:
** Emphasis on basic conceptual understanding of the content.
** Emphasis on use of SI units, symbols, nomenclature of physical quantities and formulations as per international standards.
** Providing logical sequencing of units of the subject matter and proper placement of concepts with their linkage for better learning.
** Reducing the curriculum load by eliminating overlapping of concepts/content within the discipline and other disciplines.
** Promotion of process-skills, problem solving abilities and applications of Physics concepts.

Besides, the Syllabus also attempts to
** Strengthen the concepts developed at the secondary stage to provide firm foundation for further learning in the subject.
** Expose the learners to different processes used in Physics -related industrial and technological applications.
** Develop process-skills and experimental, observational, manipulative, decision making and investigatory skills in the leaners.
** Promote problem solving abilities and creative thinking in learners.
** Develop conceptual competence in the lear ners and make them realize and appreciate the interface of Physics with other disciplines.

One Paper Time: 3 Hours Marks
Unit I Electrostatics 08
Unit II Current Electricity 07
Unit II Magnetic effect of current & Magnetism 08
Unit IV Electromagnetic Induction and alternating current 08
Unit V Electromagnetic Waves 03
Unit VI Optics 14
Unit VII Dual Nature of Matter 04
Unit VIII Atoms and Nuclei 06
Unit IX Electronic Devices 07
Unit X Communication Systems 05
Total 70

Unit I: Electrostatics
Electric charges; Conservation of charge, Coulomb’s law – force between two point charges, forces between multiple charges; superposition principle and continuous charge distribution.
Electric field, electric field due to a point charge, electric field lines; electric dipole, electric field due to a dipole; torque on a dipole in uniform electric field.

Electric flux, statement of Gauss’s theorem and its applications to find field due to infinitely long. Straight wire, uniformly charged infinite plane sheet and uniformly charged thin spherical shell (field inside and outside). Electric potential, potential difference, electric potential due to a point charge, a dipole and system of charges; equipotential surfaces, electrical potential energy of a system of two point charges and of electric dipole in an electrostati c field.

Conductors and insulators, free charges and bound charges inside a conductor. Dielectrics and electric polarization, capacitors and capacitance, combination of capacitors in series and in parallel, capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor with and without dielectric medium between the plates. energy stored in a capacitor. Van de Graaff generator.

Unit II: Current Electricity
Electric current, flow of electric charges in a metallic conductor, drift velocity, mobility and their relation with electric current;

Ohm’s law, electrical resistance, V-I characteristics (linear and non-linear), electrical energy and power. electrical resistivity and conductivity. Carbon resistors, color code for carbon resistors; series and parallel combinations of resistors; temperature dependence of resistance

Internal resistance of a cell, potential difference and emf of a cell, combination of cells in series and in parallel. Kirchhoff’s laws and simple applications. Wheatstone bridge, metre bridge
Potentiometer – principle and its applications to measure potential difference and for comparing emf of two cells; measurement of internal resistance of a cell.

Unit III : Magnetic Effects of Current and Magnetism
Concept of magnetic field, Oersted’s experiment.
Biot –Savart law and its application to current carrying circular loop. Ampere’s law and its applications to infinitely long straight wire, straight and toroidal solenoids.

Force on amoving charge in uniform magnetic and electric fields. Cyclotron.
Force on a current-carrying conductor in a uniform magnetic field.
Force between two parallel current -carrying conductors-definition of ampere. Torque experienced by a current loop in uniform magnetic field; moving coil galvanometer -its current sensitivity and conversion to ammeter and voltmeter.

Current loop as a magnetic dipole and its magnetic dipole moment. Magnetic dipole moment of a revolving electron. Magnetic field intensity due to a magnetic dipole (bar magnet)

Along its axis and perpendicular to its axis. Torque on a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) in a uniform magnetic field; bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid, magnetic field lines; Earth’s magnetic field and magnetic elements. Para-, dia- and ferro –magnetic substances, with examples. Electromagnets and factors affecting their strengths. Permanent magnets.

Unit IV: Electromagnetic Induc tion and Alternating Currents
Electromagnetic induction; Faraday’s law, induced emf and current; Lenz’s law Eddy currents..
Self and mutual inductance. Need for displacement current Alternating currents, peak and rms value of alternating current/voltage; reactance and impedance; LC oscillations (qualitative treatment only), LCR series circuit , resonance; power in AC circuits, wattles current.
AC generator and transformer.

Unit V: Electromagnetic waves
Electromagnetic waves and their characteristics (qualitative ideas only). Transverse nature of electromagnetic waves. Electromagnetic spectrum (radio waves, microwaves. Infrared , visible, ultraviolet, X-rays gamma rays) including elementary facts about their uses.

Unit VI: Optics
Reflection of light, spherical mirrors, mirror formula.
Refraction of light, total internal reflection and its application, optical fibres, refraction at spherical surfaces, lenses, thin lens formula, lens-maker’s formula. Magnification, power of alens, combination of thin lenses in contact. Refraction and dispersion of light through a prism.
Scattering of light –blue colour of the sky and reddish appearance of the sun at sunrise and sunset.

Optical instruments: Human eye, image formation and accommodation, correction of eye defects (myopia, hypermetropia, presbyopia and astigmatism) using lenses. Microscopes and astronomical telescopes (reflecting and sefracting) and their magnifying powers.

Wave optics: wave front and Huygens’ principle, reflection and refraction of plane wace at a plane surface using wave fronts. Proof of laws of reflection and refraction using Huygens ’principle. Interference; Young’s double slit experiment and expression for fringe width, coherent sources and sustained interference of light.
Diffraction due to a single slit. Width of central maximum.

Resolving power of microscopes and astronomical telescopes.
Polarisation. Plane polarized light; Brewster’s law, uses of plane polarized light and Polaroid’s.

Unit VII:Dual Nature of Matter and Radiation
Dual nature of radiation, Photoelectric effect, Hertz and Lenard’s observations; Einstein’s photoelectric equation – particle nature of light. Matter waves -wave nature of particles, de Broglie relation. Davisson-Germer experiment

Unit VIII: Atoms & Nuclei
Alpha-particle scattering experiment; Rutherford’s model of atom; Bohr model, energy levels, hydrogen spectrum. Composition and size of nucleus, atomic masses, isotopes, isobars; isotones. Radioactivity-alpha, beta and gamma particles/rays and their properties; radioactive decay law.
Mass-energy relation, mass defect; binding energy per nucleon and its variation with mass number; nuclear fission and fusion.

Unit IX: Electronic Devices
Semiconductors; semiconductor diode –I-V characteristics in forward and reverse bias, diode as a rectifier; I-V characteristics of LED, Photodiode, solar cell, and Zener diode; Zener diode as a voltage regulator. Junction transistor, transistor action, characteristics of a transistor; transistor as an amplifier (common emitter configuration) and osc illator Logic gates (OR , AND ,NOT, NAND and NOR). Transistor as a switch.

Unit X: Communication Systems
Elements of a communication system (block diagram only); band width of signals (speech, TV and digital data); bandwidth of transmission medium.

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