Organisation : Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE)
Facility : Curriculum for the Academic Year 2022-23
Classes : Secondary Curriculum (IX-X)
Website : https://cbseacademic.nic.in/curriculum_2023.html
What is Central Board of Secondary Education?
The Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) is a national level board of education in India for public and private schools, controlled and managed by the Government of India. The Board conducts centralized examinations for classes 10th and 12th every year in the months of February and March. The CBSE Class 10 Board Exams are called All India Secondary School Examination (AISSE) and the Class 12 Board exams are called – All India Senior School Certificate Examination (AISSCE). The Curriculum for the Academic Year 2022-23 are given below.
Syllabus For CBSE Secondary Curriculum (IX-X)
The Syllabus For Secondary Curriculum (IX-X) are given below,
Science – Class IX
Unit I: Matter-Nature and Behaviour
Definition of matter; solid, liquid and gas; characteristics – shape, volume, density; change of state- melting (absorption of heat), freezing, evaporation (cooling by evaporation), condensation, sublimation.
Nature of matter- Elements, compounds and mixtures. Heterogeneous and homogenous mixtures, colloids and suspensions. Physical and chemical changes (excluding separating the components of a mixture).
Particle nature and their basic units- Atoms and molecules, Law of Chemical Combination, Chemical formula of common compounds, Atomic and molecular masses. Structure of atoms: Electrons, protons and neutrons, Valency, Atomic Number and Mass Number, Isotopes and Isobars.
Theme: The World of the Living
Unit II: Organization in the Living World
Cell – Basic Unit of life : Cell as a basic unit of life; prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, multicellular organisms; cell membrane and cell wall, cell organelles and cell inclusions; chloroplast, mitochondria, vacuoles, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus; nucleus, chromosomes – basic structure, number.
Tissues, Organs, Organ System, Organism: Structure and functions of animal and plant tissues (only four types of tissues in animals; Meristematic and Permanent tissues in plants).
Unit III: Motion, Force and Work
Motion: Distance and displacement, velocity; uniform and non-uniform motion along a straight line; acceleration, distance-time and velocity-time graphs for uniform motion and uniformly accelerated motion, elementary idea of uniform circular motion.
Force and Newton’s laws : Force and Motion, Newton’s Laws of Motion, Action and Reaction forces, Inertia of a body, Inertia and mass, Momentum, Force and Acceleration.
Gravitation: Gravitation; Universal Law of Gravitation, Force of Gravitation of the earth (gravity), Acceleration due to Gravity; Mass and Weight; Free fall.
Floatation: Thrust and Pressure. Archimedes’ Principle; Buoyancy. Work, Energy and Power: Work done by a Force, Energy, power; Kinetic and Potential energy; Law of conservation of energy (excluding commercial unit of Energy).
Sound: Nature of sound and its propagation in various media, speed of sound, range of hearing in humans; ultrasound; reflection of sound; echo.
Unit IV: Food Production
Plant and animal breeding and selection for quality improvement and management; Use of
fertilizers and manures; Protection from pests and diseases; Organic farming.
Note for the Teachers:
1. The chapter Natural Resources (NCERT Chapter 14) will not be assessed in the year-end
examination. However, learners may be assigned to read this chapter and encouraged to
prepare a brief write up on any concept of this chapter in their Portfolio. This may be for
Internal Assessment and credit may be given for Periodic Assessment/Portfolio.
2. The NCERT text books present information in boxes across the book. These help
students to get conceptual clarity. However, the information in these boxes would not be
assessed in the year-end examination.
Practicals should be conducted alongside the concepts taught in theory classes.
(List of Experiments)
1. Preparation of
a) a true solution of common salt, sugar and alum
b) a suspension of soil, chalk powder and fine sand in water
c) a colloidal solution of starch in water and egg albumin/milk in water and distinguish between these on the basis of
** filtration criterion
2. Preparation of Unit-I
a) A mixture
b) A compound using iron filings and sulphur powder and distinguishing between these on the basis of
(i) appearance, i.e., homogeneity and heterogeneity
(ii) behaviour towards a magnet
(iii) behaviour towards carbon disulphide as a solvent
(iv) effect of heat
3. Perform the following reactions and classify them as physical or chemical changes: Unit-I
a) Iron with copper sulphate solution in water
b) Burning of magnesium ribbon in air
c) Zinc with dilute sulphuric acid
d) Heating of copper sulphate crystals
e) Sodium sulphate with barium chloride in the form of their solutions in water
4. Preparation of stained temporary mounts of (a) onion peel, (b) human cheek cells & to record observations and draw their labeled diagrams. Unit-II
5. Identification of Parenchyma, Collenchyma and Sclerenchyma tissues in plants, striped, smooth and cardiac muscle fibers and nerve cells in animals, from prepared slides. Draw their labeled diagrams. Unit-II
6. Determination of the melting point of ice and the boiling point of water. Unit-I
7. Verification of the Laws of reflection of sound. Unit-III
8. Determination of the density of solid (denser than water) by using a spring balance and a measuring cylinder.
Science – Class X
Unit I: Chemical Substances – Nature and Behaviour
Chemical reactions: Chemical equation, Balanced chemical equation, implications of a balanced chemical equation, types of chemical reactions: combination, decomposition, displacement, double displacement, precipitation, endothermic exothermic reactions, oxidation and reduction.
Acids, bases and salts: Their definitions in terms of furnishing of H+ and OH– ions, General properties, examples and uses, neutralization, concept of pH scale (Definition relating to logarithm not required), importance of pH in everyday life; preparation and uses of Sodium Hydroxide, Bleaching powder, Baking soda, Washing soda and Plaster of Paris.
Metals and nonmetals: Properties of metals and non-metals; Reactivity series; Formation and properties of ionic compounds; Basic metallurgical processes; Corrosion and its prevention.
Carbon compounds: Covalent bonding in carbon compounds. Versatile nature of carbon. Homologous series. Nomenclature of carbon compounds containing functional groups (halogens, alcohol, ketones, aldehydes, alkanes and alkynes), difference between saturated hydro carbons and unsaturated hydrocarbons. Chemical properties of carbon compounds (combustion, oxidation, addition and substitution reaction). Ethanol and Ethanoic acid (only properties and uses), soaps and detergents.
Theme: The World of the Living
Unit II: World of Living
Life processes: ‘Living Being’. Basic concept of nutrition, respiration, transport and excretion in plants and animals. Control and co-ordination in animals and plants: Tropic movements in plants; Introduction of plant hormones;
Control and co-ordination in animals: Nervous system; Voluntary, involuntary and reflex action; Chemical co-ordination: animal hormones.
Reproduction: Reproduction in animals and plants (asexual and sexual) reproductive health – need and methods of family planning. Safe sex vs HIV/AIDS. Child bearing and women’s health. Heredity and Evolution: Heredity; Mendel’s contribution- Laws for inheritance of traits: Sex determination: brief introduction
Theme: Natural Phenomena
Unit III: Natural Phenomena
Reflection of light by curved surfaces; Images formed by spherical mirrors, centre of curvature, principal axis, principal focus, focal length, mirror formula (Derivation not required),magnification. Refraction; Laws of refraction, refractive index. Refraction of light by spherical lens; Image formed by spherical lenses; Lens formula (Derivation not required); Magnification. Power of a lens. Functioning of a lens in human eye, defects of vision and their corrections, applications of spherical mirrors and lenses. Refraction of light through a prism, dispersion of light, scattering of light, applications in daily life
Theme: How Things Work
Unit IV: Effects of Current
Electric current, potential difference and electric current. Ohm’s law; Resistance, Resistivity, Factors on which the resistance of a conductor depends. Series combination of resistors, parallel combination of resistors and its applications in daily life. Heating effect of electric current and its applications in daily life. Electric power, Interrelation between P, V, I and R. Magnetic effects of current : Magnetic field, field lines, field due to a current carrying conductor, field due to current carrying coil or solenoid; Force on current carrying conductor, Fleming’s Left Hand Rule, Direct current. Alternating current: frequency of AC. Advantage of AC over DC. Domestic electric circuits.
Theme: Natural Resources
Unit V: Natural Resources
Our environment: Eco-system, Environmental problems, Ozone depletion, waste production and their solutions. Biodegradable and non-biodegradable substances.